The most direct strategies are those that require equal pay for equal work and equal pay for work of equal value. Equal pay for equal work was most effective when they called for the elimination of differences in pay rates between men and women in industrial agreements. The rapid reduction of the gender pay gap in Australia and the United Kingdom in the 1970s, for example, demonstrates the effectiveness of measures to eliminate direct discrimination in collective agreements (Gregory et al. 1989, Zabalza and Tzannatos, 1985). The improvements made in Sweden over the same decade also reflect the benefit of broad coverage by collective agreements and, in this case, are due to the introduction of equal pay legislation. Although equal pay requirements may be quite effective at first if they compensate for minimum rates between men and women in a comprehensive set of collective agreements, the extent of segregation in the labour market means that most equal pay provisions for equal work apply only to a small proportion of women. , as few men and women actually do the same work. In Finland, collective agreements are of general application. This means that a collective agreement in an industry becomes a general legal minimum for an individual`s employment contract, whether or not he or she is unionized. For this condition to apply, half of the workers in this sector must be unionized and therefore support the agreement. During the reporting period, there were two significant changes in business organizations. First, the merger of two major employers` organizations (Keidanren and Nikkeiren to Nihon Keidanren, Japan Business Federation, in 2003) means that labour issues are no longer more important issues for needing a separate organization, the Nikkeiren having been created specifically for work issues in 1948.
Another important change has been the shift in power of established companies (the Zaibatsu groups and quasi-public companies such as New Japan Steel or power companies) towards more dynamic newcomers. The latter was the appointment of two Toyota presidents to head the influential Nihon Keidanren (Shoichiro Toyoda and Okuda). Toyota was once considered the outsider of the networks of core activities formed around former Zaibatsu groups (Mitsui, Mitsubishi) and public groups. Zaibatsu groups lost their cohesion and influence in the 1990s due to the weakness of the banking and insurance sector. The Act is now enshrined in the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 p.179, which provides that collective agreements are definitively considered non-binding in the United Kingdom. This presumption can be rebutted if the agreement is written and includes an express provision that it should be legally enforceable. The extent of CB requires separate treatment, as it is more difficult to establish that it could not appear.